Showing posts with label hardware. Show all posts
Showing posts with label hardware. Show all posts


And now, ladies and gentlemen, the HP printer will not print any more!

Problem: Sometimes some models of HP Laserjet printers suddenly end up producing prints while being turned on and online

Cause: Probably in some cases it may happen that the document sent to the printer "clog" the print queue or otherwise create problems in the printer driver or in the "spooler" Windows printing. These are the "software components" that manage printing. 

Sometimes, unfortunately, turning off and on the PC and / or the printer, the problem persists! On Windows, the printer seems online, but already by clicking on the icon, you will see a yellow triangle that indicates the problem.
Solution 1: 
  • Press the power button (which will become lit green) to turn on the printer. 
  • Open the Properties window. 
    • With Windows XP: Click Start -> Printers and Faxes, right-click the right mouse button on the printer and click Properties. 
    • Windows Vista: Click on Windows -> Control Panel, click Hardware and Sound -> Printer, then click with the right mouse button on the printer and click Properties. 
  • In the Properties window, click the Ports tab, then Enable bidirectional support and then Apply. 
  • In the Properties window, click the Configure tab, select the status On and then Apply. 
  • Unplug the power cord from the electrical outlet and from the back of the device. 
  • Disconnect the USB cable from the computer and then reconnect it. 
  • Reconnect the power cord to the back of the product and then plug it into an electrical outlet. 
  • Press the power button to turn on the printer 
  • Try again to print.

Solution 2: 
  • Click Start -> Settings -> Control Panel 
  • Open Administrative Tools and then Services 
  • Look for the Print Spooler service, and click 2 times on 
  • Press the Stop button and stop the service (if it is not already stopped because of the problem) 
  • Now click on Start -> Run 
  • Write the command cmd and press the Enter key 
  • A window will open the DOS prompt (black) in which you must type the following commands: 
  • Navigate to the root folder with: cd \ 
  • Navigate to the folder spooled with: CD Windows \ system32 \ spool \ printers 
  • Delete all of the contents of this folder with DEL *. * 
  • Restart the Print Spooler service by clicking 2 times over and pressing Start
  • Try printing

Solution 3: 
Download the HP Print Diagnostic Utility (HPPDU.EXE) which performs a series of checks and can also automatically fix this specific problem, indicating that the print queue has pending "works" to be deleted. In addition, this software analyzes and solves a number of other errors and problems that can occur with both HP printers connected via USB or via Ethernet (LAN)

Update of 17/09/2012: The HP site appears to have eliminated this particular tool from its servers but you can still find it on the network (for example here). In compensation HP has released some new tools for verifying hardware and software problems of its products, namely the HP Diagnostic Tools

Note: sometimes the problem is much more simple and crude and just check that the print spooler of the printer in question has not been inadvertently put in "sleep". 

Check to see if the menu item "Printer" have a check mark in "Pause Printing" and if there were, deselect it

Of course, this type of error is not unique to HP printers but is common to all brands as it depends on the user's carelessness !!

In the past I have had problems in particular with the HP Laserjet P1006 and 1022, the operating system used was Windows Seven
In at least one case the error message concerned the Print Spooler service that was not running. The software HPPDU HP has solved the problems immediately and automatically. 
In the case of HP Laserjet 1020 and 1022 (and other printers Host based) as reported in the HP support blog, sometimes by printing PDF documents containing scanned images, HOST based printer drivers do not process the job properly and block the spooler. Also in this case we can use the solution 2 to unlock print spooling. A definitive solution seems be to adopt the PCL driver of a printer oldest such as the classic HP LaserJet III.



NAS4Free: the heir of FreeNAS 0.7, an Open Source Network Disk

NAS4Free version 9.2.1 is a free distribution of FreeBSD 9 that has been optimized to provide a service of Network Attached Storage (NAS) or external network drive. It is a software distribution that can be installed on your obsolete computers and turns them into storage disks with redundancy and security features often available only on paid and high-end products!
NAS4Free logo

I have already reviewed a previous version of FreeNAS (exactly the versions 0.7.x and previous in FreeNAS - How to create a network drive free), but since then there has been a fork of the project by the new partner / sponsor iXsystems, which has brought several changes, so now there are two types of products: 

a) FreeNAS 9.1.1 - which is a new project, always open source, completely renovated and improved both in graphic and in functionality and that is managed by iXsystems which bought the brand FreeNAS in 2011. 

b) NAS4Free 9.2.1 - the direct heir of the old FreeNAS version 0.7, which has been renamed and is developed and maintained by a team of volunteers and also Open Source.

NAS4Free volume manager

NAS4Free 9.2.1 supports data sharing systems: Windows, Apple, and UNIX / LINUX

Hard disks and volumes can be managed with:
  • ZFS v.28 (RAIDZ, RAIDZ2, RAIDZ3), 
  • Software RAID (0,1,5) or mix (1+0,1+1, ecc…), 
  • disk encryption (with adapter hardware acceleration if available),
  • Filesystem ZFS v.28, UFS, Ext2/3, FAT, NTFS, 
  • Partition (MBR andGPT)
  • iSCSI (initiator), 

Supports the following network protocols:
  • SMB/CIFS (samba3, samba2, samba) 4.1.5, 
  • AFP (Netatalk), 
  • NFS, 
  • FTP (ProFTPD), 
  • TFTP (tftp-hpa), 
  • RSYNC (client / server), 
  • Unison, 
  • SCP (SSH)
  • iSCSI (target), 

The Extra Services available are:
  • UPnP server (FUPPES), 
  • BitTorent client (transmission)
  • iTunes/DAAP server (Firefly),
  • Webserver (Lighttpd),
  • Network Bandwidth measure (IPERF),

About Networking:
  • 802.1q vlan tagging,
  • Wireless,
  • link aggregation,
  • Wake On Lan,
  • Bridge
  • CARP (Common Address Redundancy Protocol)
  • HAST (Highly Available Storage)

About monitoring::
  • S.M.A.R.T (smartmontools)
  •  E-mail notification
  • SNMPSyslog
  • UPS (NUT) 

Everything is configurable through its web interface.

NAS4Free 9.2.1 can be installed on Compact Flash memory / USB / SSD and HDD, or it can be started on LIVE CD and can use a small USB key to store the configuration data. Also exists in two versions: 
  • 32bit, with which you will be able to use the hardware with MAX 4 GB of RAM
  • 64bit, with which you can install and use more than 4GB of RAM

Despite having improved compatibility with newer hardware (thanks to an upgrade of the operating system) remains compatible hardware "obsolete" and therefore suitable for use on a PC also "very old" for their re-use. Here is the list of compatible hardware supported
The user interface (GUI) has undergone a makeover but remains very similar to the previous version. 
Among the goodies available, there is also the possibility of installing an LCD panel that displays in real time the most important information, and that is managed through the service LCDproc.

NAS4Free 9.2.1 adds support for SMB3, the ability for FreeNAS to be a Windows Domain Controller, and advanced features like server-side copy support in Windows 2012 and later.

[Source:] NAS4Free

I recently upgraded an older PC (already used as FreeNAS ) and consists of an Intel Pentium III with about 704 MB of RAM, reformatting and passing from the old to the new FreeNAS 0.69 NAS4Free 9.1. Because I thought that the hardware of this particular PC was NOT suitable for use as Zettabyte File System ( ZFS), due to the limited RAM and processor 32-bit inappropriate, I decided to fall back on a simple RAID 1 volume mounted on two SATA disks and shared with the service through Windows CIFS / Samba. Everything works great !
Also on this NAS4Free also use the service RSYNC client to synchronize the contents of a folder on disk to another PC version of FreeNAS 0.69 ( so for now not yet updated ) .

For some years now I'm running some old converted PC , here's the list :
n.2 - FreeNAS 0.69.2 PC - Intel Pentium 3
n.1 - FreeNAS 0.7.2 PC - Intel Pentium 3
n.1 - NAS4Free 9.1 PC - Intel Pentium 3 (*** Updated ***)
n.1 - FreeNAS 8.3.1 PC - Intel Pentium 4 (*** new project created by the fork ! ***)
Until now ... I was very pleased with their behavior !

One of the features I like the most in these products ( FreeNAS and NAS4Free ) is the ability to upgrade the firmware ( or the whole operating system software ) without having to reformat the whole thing!
Another feature important to me , is the presence of both an editor of an internal file manager, which eventually delete or modify files and folders that you do not have permissions to the share level .
NAS4Free has developed very good diagnostic functions and LOG disks , and the system.

Now some advice about the options in the BIOS of the PC:
If you can enable BIOS to automatically start the PC every day at a set time , so if you miss the current PC would restart by itself at the latest the next day!
Select the option that indicates hardware failures other than the keyboard , or "ALL, but keyboard" , so you can run the PC without having to connect a keyboard .
Disable the cache VIDEO or otherwise any kind of cache memory that subtracts the main RAM , since in any case there would benefit significantly to the functioning of the operating system.
Update of 03/09/2013 : Occasionally you have to upgrade the operating system of yours NAS devices in order to fix bugs and possibly take advantage of the new features implemented. So I proceeded to upgrade to one of the 5 NAS systems that use. In particular, I updated the software on the NAS already mounted NAS4Free (revision 531) NAS4Free to version (revision 847) using the function updates the firmware. I did not expect any particular problems in upgradin , in fact everything went well , very fast!


How would you like it to be improved on this article? 
Leave me a comment with your thoughts or requests!

If you find this article useful please click on the button "G +1" in the bottom of the post before the "Comments" section!


FreeNAS - How to create a network drive free

FreeNAS is a free Linux distribution (specifically is FreeBSD) with which you can transform an old PC into a network drive. For the numerous security features available to you this is more properly a Network Attached Storage (NAS) so it can be used in business.

FreeNAS supports the following file systems NTFS (using NTFS-3G), Ext2, Ext3, ZFS, FAT16, FAT32, UFS and UFS2. Are possible installations with iSCSI and RAID.
The advantage you have with this distribution (in addition to giving a second life to older PCs) is the ease of expansion of hardware features. For example, you can easily increase the capacity of the disks (by adding new hard disk on your PC) or speed of access to the LAN (replacing the 100 Mbit network card with a 1000-Mbit or more), or simply the ease of maintenance (if something fails it is easy to replace it, as they are all standard components and cheap).
Currently the version 8 is coming out. That promises further improvements! As soon as possible I will try to test it!

For years I use different PCs with different configurations transformed into FreeNAS, never having encountered any particular problems (in versions 6 and 7). In some cases they are "virtualized" or are virtual PCs (VMware FreeNAS).

See also: NAS4Free: the heir of FreeNAS 0.7, an Open Source Network Disk

Zeroshell: an Italian Router - Firewall - Bridge

Zeroshell is an Italian free Linux distribution that can be installed on a standard PC and that provides the main network services a LAN normally requires (routers, bridges, Firewall, VPN, HTTP proxy, captive portal, etc..)

It is available in Live CD or Compact Flash image and you can configure and administer it via a web browser.
Anyone with a little familiarity with such hardware can reuse an old obsolete PC and turn it into the router (all at no cost!).

Among the many features provided by this tool I found very interesting:
1) The Net Balancer that can operate in two modes a) "Load Balancing and Failover" where the requests for access to the Internet are balanced automatically and in proportion to the weight of each gateway and, in the event of failure of one gateway, this is excluded from the Automatic balance  b) "Failover" only one link is active at a time (the one with highest weight among those who are not in the state of Fault). The others are in the state of Spare, ready to attend in case of interruption of the active link.

2) the Virtual Private Network (LAN-to-LAN),  the ability to create links encrypted (permanent and automatic) over networks points that are geographically dispersed (using Internet).


January 18, 2018SNORT - IDS / IPS can be installed from Zeroshell 3.7.1 allowing to identify and block attacks from outside to the LAN.
29 December 2017The new Zeroshell 3.8.2 for X86 / X86_64 and ARM contains the latest versions of OpenVPN and nDPI, improved hardware recognition and other Bug Fixes.
December 14th 2017An image of Zeroshell 3.8.1A for Orange Pi PC Plus has been released. This model is more convenient than the Orange Pi PC because in addition to having in addition a working Wi-Fi module both as Client and Access Point, it also has a Flash memory Integrated MMC which allows Zeroshell to be installed when it is not necessary to use a MicroSD.
November 16th 2017An image of Zeroshell 3.8.1A for Orange Pi R1 has been released. This small and economical Quad Core device has two 10/100 Ethernet interfaces and a Wi-Fi module that works both as a Client and Access Point.
November 2, 2017Zeroshell 3.8.1 has a more stable kernel that solves the problem of sporadic system crashes. Patches have been applied to the wireless system against the latest vulnerabilities of the WPA2 protocol implementation. Other fixes have been applied and in particular the VPN system is more reliable. Zeroshell 3.8.1 is available for both X86 architecture and ARM architecture.
7 July 2017Zeroshell 3.8.0 has a new Kernel and several Bugs and Security Fixes. The update to this release is recommended.
April 29th 2017Zeroshell 3.7.1A is the first release for ARM Architecture. At the moment only the following platforms are supported: Raspberry Pi 2/3, Orange Pi Zero, Orange Pi PC and Orange Pi Plus / Plus2.
January 20th 2017An exploit has been identified that allows the execution of unauthorized remote code. Several installations were already compromised. It has become urgent to upgrade to Zeroshell 3.7.1 which neutralises this security flaw. Any version prior to 3.7.1 is vulnerable.
January 5th 2017Zeroshell 3.7.0 has a new kernel with which some stability problems have been solved and performance improved. Many services including Captive Portal, VPN and Radius have been recompiled with the new OpenSSL 1.0.2 libraries. This was necessary because the old OpenSSL 0.9.8 are no longer supported and have different vulnerabilities. The compatibility of the Captive Portal and RADIUS server with new client devices has also been improved.
4 December 2016Ipt-netflow is available for Zeroshell 3.6.0 which allows you to export network traffic statistics to a NetFlow / IPFIX collector. ipt-netflow operates in Kernel mode, thus guaranteeing high performance.
October 20th 2016NTOPng is available for Zeroshell 3.3.2+. It allows you to view and analyze network connections by ordering them by busy bandwidth, exchanged traffic, application (L7 protocols) and more. For more information visit
September 21st 2016A development environment is available for Zeroshell that allows you to install applications by compiling the sources. To be installed, it requires at least Zeroshell 3.3.2 and is available through the Package Manager. It can also be used to compile the Kernel or individual driver modules that best support your hardware.
4th of July 2016Zeroshell 3.6.0 solves some problems related to Captive Portal, VPNs and Net Balancer. The web interface of the Firewall and of the Traffic Shaping has been changed to support nDPI which will soon replace the L7 Filters as a Deep Packet Inspection system. Improved hardware support thanks to Kernel 4.4.13. In particular, Intel NICs on PCIe buses take advantage of this release.
3 March 2016Zeroshell 3.5.0 includes the new GLIBC 2.23 libraries that solve the vulnerability described by CVE-2015-7547 regarding previous versions that would allow, through specific responses of a DNS controlled by hackers, to take control of the system. Therefore, the upgrade is strongly recommended. This release includes Kernel 4.1.15 which guarantees better performance and lower latency with a significantly reduced Load Average.
January 10th 2016Kernel 4.1.15 is available. This Kernel guarantees better recognition and management of new hardware. It has been configured with some parameters concerning the frequency and the scheduling strategy that have made it more performing and with lower latency in the networking operations. Using this kernel you notice a significant decrease in system load.
2 December 2015PHP and MySQL are available for installation as an Add-On from the Repository.
2 October 2015Zeroshell 3.4.0 has a new kernel with improved recognition and support for next-generation hardware. Improved performance and fixed numerous bugs. Guaranteed Wireless connectivity for iPads and iPhones upgraded to the latest iOS 9 .
The update can be done online via the Package Manager without having to reinstall.
March 1, 2015With the new Kernel available in the repository it is now possible to create Virtual Machines hosted by Hypervisor XEN. This is a 64-bit Kernel and therefore it is not possible to create 32-bit virtual machines.
1 February 2015All Zeroshell releases up to 3.3.1 include a version of the GLIBC libraries that is vulnerable to possible buffer overflows. This vulnerability, called GHOST, could allow remote execution of unauthorized code. For these reasons, it is recommended to upgrade to Zeroshell 3.3.2 which includes the latest version of the GLIBC as well as several other fixes.
January 25th 2015Zeroshell 3.3.0 includes the Kernel 3.14.29, numerous Bug Fixes and some improvements of the Web interface. The CNTop utility has been integrated, which can now sort and display the hosts that consume more band as well as generate more connections. A problem with the Net Balancer Failover system has been corrected. Also this release has the 64 Bit Kernel which improves its performance and allows to use all the available RAM. Accessing the repository is possible to upgrade automatically from the 3.0.0 release.
20 January 2015A 64-bit Kernel is available that provides better performance for Kernel Mode processes such as Firewall, Routing, Bridging, Traffic Shaping, Layer 7 Filters and Network Address Translation (NAT).
January 5th 2015A new version of the CNTop utility for Zeroshell is available.
This release, allows to know in addition to the hosts that are generating the most connections, even the IP that are exchanging more data. Moreover, the reverse resolution from IP to hostname is available that allows to identify the hosts more easily and to quickly understand the type of traffic that occurs on its LAN.
IP filters, protocol and port number are applicable.
29 September 2014The new Zeroshell 3.2.0 release is now available.
It is imperative to upgrade to this new release because all the above are affected by a serious vulnerability caused by a Bash bug (CVE-2014-7186 vulnerability ShellShock). By exploiting this vulnerability, an unauthenticated user can execute arbitrary code from the web interface.
Many other bugs have been corrected.
September 14th 2014An incorrect configuration of the Connection Tracking prevented the Layer 7 Filters from working correctly. All releases starting from 2.0.RC1 to 3.1.0 present such a malfunction.To solve this problem install the BugFix Package 23102 on Zeroshell 3.1.0. This package also eliminates the limit of 100 Free Authorized Clients of the Captive Portal.
July 15, 2014The new Zeroshell 3.1.0 release is now available. With this release the stability of the system has improved and many bugs have been fixed. Among the new features, there are some important ones such as:
  • The Installation Manager that allows an installation easier and faster than before, starting from CD or USB Flash or using an existing installation.
  • Weighted Bonding that allows you to balance traffic on links with different speeds.
  • The Monitoring and Alerting system via e-Mail / SMS that monitors the occurrence of certain events such as the absence of a network. The list of events can be extended and the managers of customized events.
  • The CNTop utility that displays the IP addresses with the most TCP / UDP connections open at the same time. This can be used effectively to determine a host from which a DDoS attack is coming from or to its own network.
Among other things, the Captive Portal has been improved and now allows a greater number of users connected at the same time.
If the 3.0.0 release is already installed and access to the active repository, it is possible to upgrade to 3.1.0 automatically, without losing the configuration and with a few simple clicks. The package to be installed from the repository is 53100 which will take care of the migration with a minimum interruption of service due to the reboot. If you want to use the Installation Manager instead, remember that all data on the destination disk will be destroyed. It is therefore necessary to first make a backup of the profile and then the subsequent restoration on the new installation.
10 May 2014The new Monitoring and e-Mail / SMS Alerts Suite monitors some critical events that may occur. Each Event is assigned a level of severity on which the choice of recipients of Alert messages via e-mail and / or SMS is based. Severity levels are: Info, Warning, Critical and Emergency.
It is available as a New Feature for Zeroshell 3.0.0 and is essential for rapid intervention in resolving critical events in a production environment.
January 25, 2014The new Zeroshell on disk installation procedure is available, which allows greater speed and reliability than direct writing of the disk image with the dd or equivalent command.Moreover, the Install Manager automatically adapts the partition of the profiles to the size of the disk avoiding having to perform additional steps to expand the partition.
In a production environment, you should always choose the version of Zeroshell installed on disk because it is faster and more reliable than the Live CD version.
The details are at the URL: .
January 13, 2014A new bonding mode available as New Feature for Zeroshell 3.0.0 has been implemented.
With the weighted bonding it is possible to distribute the traffic in proportion to the capacity of the interfaces forming part of the bond. Before the introduction of this feature, the distribution of traffic took place with a simple Round-Robin that treated the interfaces in a uniform manner regardless of the actual available bandwidth. The direct consequence of this was that one could benefit from bonding only if the aggregate lines had similar capacity. It could be seen that adding a 2Mbit / s ADSL line with a 7Mbit / s line was in a band close to only 4Mbit / s. Far from the desired result.
Now with Weighted Bonding, just assign to the first ADSL line a weight of 2 and the second one a weight of 7, to see an aggregate band very close to the sum of the two lines. It should be noted that in the example we have intentionally omitted, for simplicity, to specify that the bonding of WAN lines makes sense only through VPN bonding and therefore the weight must be assigned to the VPNs in layer 2.
January 2, 2014Zeroshell 3.0.0 includes substantial innovations including the automatic update system that automatically applies security and bug fixes and allows updating to new releases.Security has been improved and numerous bugs fixed. Charts no longer require the activation key. There are numerous Kernel optimized for different processors and a Kernel compiled with PAE (Physical Address Extension) that allows you to use more than 4GB of RAM.
7 August 2013With the 2.0.RC3 version of Zeroshell some security issues are corrected. In particular, DNS now caches and accepts recursive queries only for local networks if not configured otherwise. Lately DNS open completions have been targeted for DDoS attacks with consequent bandwidth consumption. For this reason the migration to 2.0.RC3 is strongly recommended.
No-IP has been added as a provider for dynamic DNS and the recognition of 3G USB modems has been improved. It is now possible to disable virus scanning of web pages resulting in improved transparent proxy performance on modest hardware.
Several Fixes have been applied to the Profile Backup / Restore procedure.
November 21st 2012Zeroshell 2.0.RC2 improves support for balancing and fault tolerance of multiple Internet connections. In particular, this release allows to maintain in Standby the PPPoE (xDSL) and UMTS / HSDPA connections, activating the PPP protocol only in the absence of connectivity from other accesses. These connections are again placed in Standby when the connectivity returns from the default accesses. Improved Failover with controls in Layer 2 as well as with ICMP. VPN Bonding for bandwidth aggregation and LAN-to-LAN failover updated. Fixed various bugs throughout the system. In particular, in the Captive Portal a problem was solved that caused blocking under high load conditions.
25 July 2012Zeroshell 2.0.RC1 has a new kernel (3.4.6) that allows better recognition of the latest hardware. The Wi-Fi section has been updated, which uses the ath9k kernel module to support the 802.11n standard (thanks to Arth for the contribution to update the wifi-manager). The atheling patch is included which allows you to use QoS and Net Balancer at the same time. In addition to OpenVPN, IPSec / L2TP, you can use PPTP as a VPN for users whose authentication can be delegated to an external RADIUS. Numerous bugs have been fixed throughout the system with particular regard to the Captive Portal.
September 10thVersion 1.0.beta16 corrects some problems of the Captive Portal that delay the opening of the authentication page on the browsers that perform checks through CRL or OCSP.The mechanism to restore the LDAP DB in case of corruption after a crash has been improved.
Support has been added for Shibboleth as a Service Provider that redirects the authentication of the Captive Portal to Identity Provider belonging to standalone or federated AAI.
July 15, 2011The new 1.0.beta15 release contains the RADIUS Accounting module that allows you to account for time, traffic and connection costs both for access points on the Access Point with WPA / WPA2 Enterprise and Captive Portal. You can set limits in traffic and time and manage prepaid rates. The Captive Portal has been enriched with new features such as protection against DoS attacks and the ability to disable the Popup window for access to the network on mobile devices.
January 16th 2011Zeroshell version 1.0.beta14 is available. Contains many bug fixes and web interface improvements. Many packages have been recompiled with a new compiler (gcc 4.5.2).Thanks to the elimination of some causes of segmentation fault, stability has improved.
2 July 2010The new 1.0.beta13 release from Zeroshell is now available, including: a preview of the accounting system for the accounting of time, traffic and connection cost per user;Bandwidthd that tracks the most bandwidth consuming hosts; a series of Bug Fixes.
May 9th 2010The Samba package for Zeroshell is available to manage Windows network resources. See the post
May 9th 2010The NTFS-3G package for Zeroshell is available that allows you to mount NTFS filesystems in Read / Write. See the post
October 18, 2009
The Snort 2.8.5 package is available that allows a Zeroshell router / bridge to act as an IDS (Intrusion Detection System) and detect possible attacks / worms on its LAN. More details are available at the URL .
June 14, 2009The Dansguardian patch has been updated to be compatible with Zeroshell's 1.0.beta12 release.
Further details are available at the URL .
May 26th, 2009The 1.0.beta12 release is available. This release increases the stability and security of the system.
6 April 2009Statistical graphs with MRTG related to network traffic (Ethernet, Wi-Fi, VLAN, PPPoE, 3G and VPN), system load, traffic shaping and gateway load balancing are available by installing the update http: //www.zeroshell. net / patch-details / # C110
9 February 2009The update is available which enables Dynamic DNS to manage the tracking of dynamic IPs for OpenDNS. Further details are available at the URL
January 11, 2009Security Bug - All releases up to 1.0.beta11 (included) are affected by a serious security problem that allows the execution of unauthenticated remote code.
Update the system to 1.0.beta11 and apply the patch .
December 16th 2008Support for Multilink PPP
November 7, 2008The Asterisk VoIP PBX is available as an external package. More details are available at the URL
October 12, 2008The 1.0.beta11 release of Zeroshell is available. The main innovation is the Net Balancer which allows to configure the Load Balancing and the Failover of Internet connections (ADSL, UMTS / HSDPA, ...). Support for VPN aggregation has been improved, which increases bandwidth and stability of Layer 2 links between remote sites. With this release we have support for 3G modems that allows Zeroshell to perform the task of UMTS / HSDPA routers. A problem of stability of the web proxy with antivirus has been solved and the overall stability of the system has been improved.
June 29, 2008Zeroshell version 1.0.beta10 is available. It contains a more updated kernel capable of handling recent hardware and, starting from this release, the boot can also take place from HD / CDROM SATA and USB. For IDE disks, it is no longer necessary for them to be configured as Primary Master. Bugs have been fixed and support for Host-to-LAN VPNs with OpenVPN and startup scripts has been improved.
April 28th 2008The pre-configured DansGuardian package is available, which cooperates with the transparent proxy service to filter out unwanted web traffic. The default configuration denies access to web pages containing adult-only material. More details are available at the URL .
April 20, 2008A patch has been released to resolve proxy stability issues. More details are available at the URL .
March 30th 2008Released an image of Zeroshell 1.0.beta9 able to boot from a USB disk. The minimum size of the USB device is 1 GByte. It is compatible with both USB 1.1 and USB 2.0 and in particular on the latter has shown a speed of bootstrap much greater than the ISO version.
March 15th 2008Zeroshell 1.0.beta9 is available. With this release is available a transparent Web Proxy (HAVP) with ClamAV antivirus that scans web pages by blocking Virus and Worm. It is also possible to manage Blacklist and Whitelist to prevent the display of some URLs.
The Captive Portal now contains a flag that allows you to disable SSL in cases where it is not required. This allows to eliminate the warning messages regarding the digital certificates that can not be verified during user authentication.
The order in which the QoS classifier rules are evaluated has changed and Apache and OpenSSL have been updated because they were vulnerable as evidenced by Nessus.
January 20, 2008Zeroshell 1.0.beta8 is available. The main novelty is the support for WiFi that allows, to a Zeroshell box, to perform the function of Access Point with support for Multi-SSID and different types of security including WPA-PSK, WPA-EAP with Radius and WEP. In particular, multiple SSIDs can be configured both in bridges with each other and with 802.1q VLANs. Simultaneous management of multiple WiFi cards is supported on which it is possible to define SSID in load balancing. Several bugs have been fixed and in particular the Captive Portal and VPNs have been significantly improved from a security point of view. In addition, from this release the network interfaces can be configured to dynamically acquire IP addresses using a DHCP.
06 December 2007The Kerberos tutorial is now available at the URL as an official tutorial from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Kerberos Consortium. Zeroshell authentication is based on Kerberos 5.
November 28, 2007The ALIX.2C2 mini computer with 256MB of RAM, AMD Geode LX CPU 500MHz processor and MiniPCI expansion slot was tested with Zeroshell's WRAP CompactFlash. It is impressive the increase in performance that is achieved compared to WRAP with this new embedded platform for network appliances.
November 25th 2007A patch is available to be applied to the 1.0.beta7 release of Zeroshell that enables EAP-TTLS authentication instead of PAP for the Captive Portal users authenticated via RADIUS. EAP-TTLS, using TLS encrypted tunnels, helps to increase the confidentiality of user credentials when using RADIUS instead of Kerberos 5 which is already intrinsically safe. For more details click here .
November 4, 2007In the download section there is a package that adds Wi-Fi support to Zeroshell. Both the Client Station mode with which a Zeroshell box can be associated to a Wireless network, and the AP mode with which the actual Access Point functionality is obtained is supported. At the moment WiFi network cards (miniPCI, PCI) with Atheros Chipset are supported and can be used with the modules distributed by . For further details read the post .
6 October 2007A VMWare Virtual Machine with a pre-installed Zeroshell is available in the download section. The purpose of this version is to facilitate Zeroshell testing without investing in specific hardware, but it can also be used in the production environment. The Zeroshell Virtual Appliance has been tested with VMWare Player, VMWare Workstation and VMWare Server.
September 16th 2007The 1.0.beta7 release is available. In addition to a number of Bug Fixes, this release introduces the ability to create Host-to-LAN VPNs using OpenVPN. This type of VPN, supported by most operating systems (Linux, Solaris, OpenBSD, FreeBSD, NetBSD, Mac OS X and Microsoft Windows), supports the L2TP / IPSec VPNs that have often proved not easy to configure on the client side. With OpenVPN, ZeroShell can authenticate VPN connections with X.509 Digital Certificates, Kerberos 5 (thus also Active Directory) and RADIUS.
A configuration file for OpenVPN clients is available in the download section.
11 September 2007ZeroShell has become a dynamic DynDNS Dynamic DNS client. Visit this page for more details.
August 22nd 2007The 1.0.beta6 release of ZeroShell is available at URL . The main variants have been introduced in the Captive Portal which, in addition to Kerberos 5 authentication, now also accepts RADIUS authentication and X.509 digital certificates. This allows the use of Smart Cards for authentication with Captive Portal.
This release includes the Watcher Daemon, which is a process that verifies the correct operation of the services (LDAP, DNS, Kerberos, RADIUS, DHCP, ssh) and in case of a crash it restarts the process. FreeRadius has been updated with a version compatible with the Windows Vista 802.1x / PEAP supplicant.
02 July 2007There is a bug in version 1.0.beta5 of ZeroShell due to which the VoIP connections made with SIP protocol may not work properly. In this case, add the command modprobe -r ip_nat_sip in the startup script from the [Setup] -> [Startup] section.
June 27th 2007The 1.0.beta5 release of ZeroShell is available at URL . Contains many Bug Fixes and new features. The main novelty is the presence of the Connection Tracking Logger, which allows, if activated in the Firewall, to keep track of connections by sending logs, for each connection, the Protocol, the IP source address, the Source Port, the IP address of Destination and Destination Port.
April 4, 2007Due to a BUG, ​​the Username and Password of users accessing via Captive Portal remain in the History of the browser. The captive portal should therefore not be used in public places where multiple people access the same browser profile. This behavior will be corrected in the 1.0.beta5 release.
February 18th 2007The 1.0.beta4 release of Zeroshell has been released. The l7-filter filters were introduced to classify the traffic by inspecting the contents of the packages at the application level.This is useful for applying QoS for protocols that can not be classified by filters on IP addresses and TCP / UDP ports such as the H323 and SIP VoIP protocols.
January 28, 2007The 1.0.beta3 release of Zeroshell has been released. The main novelty of this release is the management of QoS (Quality of Service) that allows to model traffic on a congested network thanks to the assignment of the Priority, the Guaranteed Band and the Maximum Band to the traffic classes. It has also been introduced, within the Firewall and the QoS classifier, the possibility to control traffic such as P2P File Sharing through the IPP2P module of iptables and connection tracking.
November 7th 2006After several requests I added support for the WRAP (Wireless Router Application Platform) board. These small, cost-effective computers for network appliances require a custom CompactFlash image.
November 2, 2006At URL there are forums dedicated to ZeroShell, networks in general, Linux and the network and embedded devices oriented to network services.
October 25, 2006The 1.0.beta2 version for Compact Flash is available.
September 24th 2006ZeroShell 1.0.beta2 is available for download in the ISO image format.
June 29th 2006The version for Compact Flash is available.
June 25, 2006ZeroShell 1.0.beta1 is available for download in the ISO image format. The Compact Flash version and C ++ sources will be available soon.

I currently use the network load balancing function of Zeroshell with two ADSL balanced connections of different ISPs and different speeds.
On two other Zeroshell I use  a VPN LAN-to-LAN to easily connect a company that has two offices located in different cities using their ADSL connection.

Here are some of the most important features: 

- Balancing and Failover of multiple connections to the Internet; 
- UMTS / HSDPA 3G modem; 
- RADIUS Server 
- Captive Portal 
- Management of QoS (Quality of Service) 
- HTTP Proxy with ClamAV open source antivirus 
- Support for the functionality of the Wireless Access Point Multi SSID using WiFi network cards based on Atheros chipsets. 
- VPN LAN-to-host protocol L2TP/IPsec 
- VPN LAN-to-LAN with Ethernet encapsulation of SSL / TLS tunnel, 
- Router with static and dynamic 
- 802.1d bridge with Spanning Tree 
- Firewall Packet Filter and Stateful Packet Inspection (SPI) 
- Control through Firewall and QoS classification of traffic type P2P file sharing; 
- NAT (Network Address Translation) 
- TCP / UDP port forwarding (PAT) to create Virtual Server 
- Multizone DNS server with automatic management of the Reverse Resolution
- Multi subnet DHCP server with the ability to assign IP address based on MAC address of the applicant; 
- 802.1Q Virtual LAN (tagged VLAN) applicable on Ethernet interfaces on LAN-to-LAN VPN, VPN and bonding on the bridge consisting of Ethernet interfaces, VPN, VPN and bonds; 
- PPPoE client to connect to the WAN via ADSL, DSL and cable 
- Dynamic DNS client used to easily reach even when the WAN IP is dynamic. 
- Client Server and NTP (Network Time Protocol); 
- Syslog server for receiving and cataloging the system logs produced by the remote hosts including Unix systems, routers, switches, Wi-Fi access points, network printers and others compatible with the syslog protocol; 
- Kerberos 5 authentication using an integrated KDC and cross-domain authentication; 
- Authorization LDAP, NIS and RADIUS; 
- X.509 Certificate Authority for issuing and managing electronic certificates; 
- Integration between Unix and Windows Active Directory on a single system of authentication and authorization using LDAP and Kerberos 5 cross realm authentication.